Data Book


2.02 Time

Expression of time differs from culture to culture.

The elements of the difference are:
a. System (12 or 24 hours as a unit)
b. Hour, Minutes, Second separator
c. Time zone and applicability of daylight saving system

2.02.1 Time format (TIME)

There are 2 kinds of time formats:

Type-1: 24 hour system
Type-2: 12 hour system In case of 12 hour system, am/pm annotation is usually required


Standard format

type(s) Location
of am/pm
Time separator
China CNA 1, 2 5:45 am Colon(:)
Hong Kong HKG 1, 2 5:45 am Colon(:)
India IND 1, 2 5.45 am Period(.)
Indonesia INA 1, 2 05.45 tttt (TZO)
leading zero is usually needed
Period(.) note-1, note-2
Japan JPN 1, 2* 5:45 am Colon (:) note-3
Korea KOR 1, 2 5:45 am Colon (:)
Malaysia MAS 2 5:45 mmm note-4
Philippines PHI 1, 2 5:45 am Colon (:)
Singapore SIN 1, 2 5 AM
5 am
5:45 am
Thailand THI 1 n/a note-5 Colon (:) or Period (.)


note-1: tttt When 12hr. system is used, tttt (below) should be used in place of am/pm

note-2: TZO Time Zone See 2.02.2 Indonesian Time Zone

note-3: JIS X 0302 defines 24 hour system but practice is different

note-4: mm (below) should be used in place of am/pm

note-5: THI does not use am/pm system in Thai culture at all, THI use am/pm only in English document

rem-1: Related standards: ISO 8601, GB/T 7408, JIS X 302, PNS 293, TIS 1111

Traditional format

type(s) Location of am/pm and Time separator
China CNA 2 hhmm hh mm
Hong Kong HKG 2 hhmm hhmm
India IND 1, 2 Same as US Same as US
Indonesia I NA n/a
Japan JPN 2 hhmm hhmm
Korea KOR 2 hh mm hh mm
Malaysia MAS n/a
Philippines PHI n/a
Singapore SIN 2 Same as CNA Same as CNA
Thailand THI 1 hh:mm or hh.mm to be read as
hh mm
rem-1:





2.02.2 Time zone and day-light saving time (TIME)

Besides the difference in format, the expression of time ranges from country to country.

Time zone system;
Time difference from GMT
Day light saving time (from/to when)

China CNA n/a +8:00 n/a
Hong Kong HKG n/a +8:00 n/a
India IND n/a +5:30 n/a
Indonesia INA WIB (West INA time) +7:00n/a
WITA(Central INA time) +8:00 n/a
WIT(East INA Time) +9:00 n/a
Japan JPN n/a +9:00 n/a
(under consideration)
Korea KOR n/a +9:00 n/a
Malaysia MAS n/a +8:00 n/a
Philippines PHI n/a +12:00 n/a
Singapore SIN n/a +8:00 n/a
Thailand THI n/a +7:00 n/a


Back to Data Book Index    Next chapter