Data Book


2.10 Writing Direction

Writing direction of the text is script (thus cultural) dependent.

There are four different cases of writing direction available.

Type-1: Horizontal writing From leftto right, and from top to bottom
Type-2: Horizontal writing From right to left, and from top to bottom
Type-3: Horizontal writing Bi-directional horizontal (script dependent direction) and from top to bottom.
Writing directionfor a script may be country dependent even if it is a same script
Type-4: Vertical writing From top to bottom, and right to left

China CNA 1, 4 note-1
Hong Kong HKG 1 (English and Chinese), 4 (Chinese)
India IND 1
Indonesia INA 1, 2 1 (Indonesian), 2(Arabic)
Japan JPN 1, 4 2 for special application
Korea KOR 1, 4
Malaysia MAS 1(Malay, Chinese), 4(Chinese), 2(Jawi)
Philippines PHI 1
Singapore SIN 1(Chinese, English, Malay), 2(Jawi)
Thailand THI 1


note-1: Type-4 is used generally in layout-key of some newspaper and the Chinese ancient books
rem-1: Type-2 is traditional horizontal writing direction for Chinese
rem-2: Conventional technology to support Type-4 is " Rotate font in 90 degree CCW in Type-1 " .
The practice will not work for future, and even current, requirement for better quality print out.


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